English-Chinese Translation (50 points) Translate the following passage into Chinese.
Freed by warming, waters once locked beneath ice are gnawing at coastal settlements around the Arctic Circle. In Bykovsky, a village of 457 residents at the tip of a fin-shaped peninsula on Russia’s northeast coast, the shoreline is collapsing, creeping closer and closer to houses and tanks of heating oil, at a rate of 15 to 18 feet, or 5 to 6 meters, a year. Eventually, homes will be lost as more ice melts each summer, and maybe all of Bykovsky, too. “It is practically all ice — permafrost — and it is thawing.” The 4 million Russian people who live north of the Arctic Circle are feeling the effects of warming in many ways. A changing climate presents new opportunities, but it also threatens their environment, the stability of their homes, and, for those whose traditions rely on the ice-bound wilderness, the preservation of their culture. A push to develop the North, quickened by the melting of the Arctic seas, carries its own rewards and dangers for people in the region. Discovery of vast petroleum fields in the Barents and Kara Seas has raised fears of catastrophic accidents as ships loaded with oil or liquefied gas churn through the fisheries off Scandinavia, headed for the eager markets of Europe and North America. Land that was untouched could be tainted by air and water pollution as generators, smokestacks and large vehicles sprout to support the growing energy industry. Coastal erosion is a problem in Alaska as well, forcing the United States to prepare to relocate several Inuit coastal villages at a projected cost of US$100 million or more for each one. Across the Arctic, indigenous tribes with cultural traditions shaped by centuries of living in extremes of cold and ice are noticing changes in weather and wildlife. They are trying to adapt, but it can be confounding. In Finnmark, the northernmost province of Norway, the Arctic landscape unfolds in late winter as an endless snowy plateau, silent but for the cries of the reindeer and the occasional whine of a snowmobile herding them. A changing Arctic is felt there, too, though in another way. “The reindeer are becoming unhappy,” said Issat Eira, a 31-year-old reindeer herder. Few countries rival Norway when it comes to protecting the environment and preserving indigenous customs. The state has lavished its oil wealth on the region, and as a result Sami culture has enjoyed something of a renaissance. And yet no amount of government support can convince Eira that his livelihood, intractably entwined with the reindeer, is not about to change. Like a Texas cattleman he keeps the size of his herd secret. But he said warmer temperatures in fall and spring are melting the top s of snow, which then refreeze as ice, making it harder for his reindeer to dig through to the lichen they eat. “The people who are making the decisions, they are living in the south and they are living in towns,” said Eira, sitting beside a birch fire inside his lavvu, a home made of reindeer hides. “They don’t mark the change of weather. It is only people who live in nature and get resources from nature who mark it.”
Chinese-English Translation (50 points) Translate the following passage into English.
中国为种类繁多的菜肴感到十分自豪。饮食是中国文化的一大要素。中 国共有 8 大菜系，包括辛辣的川菜和清淡的粤菜。中国餐馆在世界各地很受 欢迎。 然而，中国人的生活方式日益变化，无论是自己下厨还是上餐馆，都出 现了全新的饮食习惯。在一些传统的中国菜中，添加了奶酪和番茄酱。城市 消费者频繁地光顾一些快餐连锁店，包括麦当劳、肯德基和必胜客。市场调 查显示，在未来几年里，西式快餐的消费在中国将以每年超过 45%的速度持续增长，而中式快餐店有望增加 15%。 收入的不断增长，对国际食品更多的了解，加上超市购物的便捷，使中 国出现了更乐于尝试包装及罐装食品的新一代消费者。随着越来越多的家庭 拥有冰箱，超市的冷冻食品不断增加，从速冻饺子到炸薯条应有尽有。绿色 有机食品也出现在大城市的商店里，但价格可能比传统产品贵很多。 由于生活方式的变化，越来越多的中国人不愿每天都采购食品。这使包 装食品更容易为大众所接受。随着有车族的增加和新城区的涌现，超市更是 日益流行。